Civil Engineering

Crossrail’s Engineering functions together established the Crossrail Technical Papers Competition which runs annually and receives papers on a range of engineering and technical disciplines. It is open to all organisations currently or previously involved in the project, including designers, contractors, joint ventures and those working for Crossrail Limited. The papers from the first three years’ competitions have been published by the Institution of Civil Engineers and the process will run until the completion of the Programme.

Activities in the Civil Engineering discipline dominated for the initial years of delivery of Crossrail and the majority of the papers presented to the Technical Papers Competition in the first three years cover design and construction of these works.  The papers from the first three volumes of Crossrail Project: Infrastructure Design and Construction are published here.  Further case studies will be produced separately on key subjects such as geology and geotechnical baseline reports, piling and deep foundations, and sprayed concrete.

Civil Engineering documents:

Summary Publication date Document Type

The use of InSAR (Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar) to complement control of construction and protect third party assets

Topic area: Civil Engineering

Instances of the use of InSAR on the Crossrail project are presented in this case study and the process of working with InSAR data via GIS software is reviewed. Advantages of InSAR include its low cost relative to other techniques, its ability to monitor large areas and the availability of historical data. The limitati...

19/09/2017 Case Study

Crossrail project: use of sprayed concrete tunnel linings on London’s Elizabeth line

Topic area: Civil Engineering

This paper discusses the use of sprayed concrete linings on the Crossrail project to deliver the Elizabeth east–west railway line across London. It describes how sprayed concrete linings have been successfully used, leading to significant programme and cost savings to the project. Sprayed concrete linings have been...

24/03/2017 Journal Publication

Crossrail project: engineering design management on the Elizabeth line, London

Topic area: Civil Engineering

This paper describes the design management for the central tunnelled section of the £14·8 billion Crossrail project to deliver the Elizabeth line east–west railway across London. It explains why the processes, procedures and areas of responsibilities of the designers and employer needed to be robust and resilient...

24/03/2017 Journal Publication

Crossrail Geological Long Section: Post-Construction Update

Topic area: Civil Engineering

The links provide access to two documents produced by GCG for Crossrail; a geological long section along the Crossrail alignment in London; and a report that provides detailed notes for the section along with some context for the production of the section. Prior to construction of Crossrail a large number of ground in...

14/03/2017 Dataset

Crossrail Dewatering Works Close-out Report

Topic area: Civil Engineering

Temporary dewatering was necessary at some Station, Portal, Shaft and Cross Passage construction sites to ensure ground stability, to control inflows into open excavation and to allow safe construction. The potential effects of these temporary dewatering works were anticipated in the Project Environment Statement (ES)....

14/03/2017 Dataset

A Deep-mined Station on the Elizabeth line, London

Topic area: Civil Engineering

This paper describes some of the key challenges and lessons learned in creating a deep-mined, sprayed-concrete lined station shell for London’s new Elizabeth line. Tottenham Court Road station was one of five such stations in the £14·8 billion Crossrail project to deliver a new 118 km east–west railway across the...

14/03/2017 Journal Publication

Crossrail project: managing geotechnical risk on London’s Elizabeth line

Topic area: Civil Engineering

Understanding the ground and the specific geotechnical risks it presented was critical for successful delivery of Crossrail, the £14·8 billion project to deliver the Elizabeth line east–west railway across London, UK. Focusing specifically on the central tunnelled section, this paper describes the broad geological ...

14/03/2017 Journal Publication

Crossrail project: machine-driven tunnels on the Elizabeth line, London

Topic area: Civil Engineering

The 42 km of tunnels constructed using soft-ground pressure-balance tunnel-boring machines for London’s new Elizabeth line were completed over a 3 year period. A single lining design solution was developed for all tunnels using a fully gasketed, steel-fibre-reinforced, concrete segmental lining suitable for use in ...

14/03/2017 Journal Publication

In-tunnel depressurisation for SCL tunnels at Whitechapel and Liverpool Street stations

Topic area: Civil Engineering

The platform and pedestrian tunnels for the Crossrail Stations at Whitechapel and Liverpool Street have been constructed using Sprayed Concrete Lining techniques more than 30 m below the congested urban streets of London. Pre-construction ground investigations indicated that the tunnels would be formed predominantly in...

31/12/2016 Technical Paper

Crossrail Tunnel Boring Machine launch and reception arrangements

Topic area: Civil Engineering

This report sets out the geological conditions at each Crossrail TBM launch or reception location and summarises any ground treatment and/or dewatering requirements that were applied as a result.

31/10/2016 Micro-report

Crossrail Tunnel Cross Passages – Construction methods and geology

Topic area: Civil Engineering

19 cross passages have been constructed between the two Crossrail running tunnels. Information about the geological conditions, the form of construction and the nature of any ground treatment or dewatering at each cross passage is presented here for reference. It will be of interest to designers and contractors constru...

27/09/2016 Dataset

Response of Buildings Supported on Shallow Footings to Tunnelling Induced Ground Movements: A Case Study of Selected Buildings at Bond Street Station.

Topic area: Civil Engineering

This paper evaluates the influence of Crossrail tunnelling works on selected buildings at Bond Street. The monitoring results of ground and building deformation and damage observed during the works are analysed and compared to those developed using the analytical and empirical methods. The monitoring results showed evi...

31/08/2016 Technical Paper
Fig 17. Inclined steel TaM barrier

Ground Improvement Measures in Advance of Drive G TBM Arrival at Victoria Dock Portal

Topic area: Civil Engineering

Shortest of all C305 running tunnel drives, Drive G had the most complex geology, steepest vertical gradient, shallowest cover at Victoria Dock Portal (VDP) and the most complicated with Third Party assets on C305. At VDP, as the tunnel alignment rose toward the portal, the crown rose into superficial deposits above th...

31/08/2016 Technical Paper

TBM View – Real-Time Continuous TBM Parameters Trend Monitoring

Topic area: Civil Engineering

Current TBM Monitoring systems are set to respond to settlement monitoring results that are, at best, reported the next day. If something is really wrong then it is too late. TBMView system can show trends and highlight errors and over excavation as it is happening and whilst there is still a chance to avoid the settle...

31/08/2016 Technical Paper

Covered Way 126 – Safeguarding a Brittle Structure over a Live Railway during Ground Movements

Topic area: Civil Engineering

Covered Way 126 is a Victorian structure enclosing the London Overground railway at Whitechapel.  It consists of masonry abutments supporting cast iron roof beams and masonry jack-arches. It is close to Crossrail tunnels and box excavations, and was expected to be affected by ground movements during Crossrail construc...

31/08/2016 Technical Paper

Comparison Between Sprayed and Cast In-Situ Concrete Secondary Linings at Bond Street and Farringdon Stations

Topic area: Civil Engineering

A joint venture of BAM, Ferrovial and Kier (BFK) have constructed the station tunnels at both Bond Street and Farringdon Stations, as part of Crossrail contracts C410 and C435 respectively. These tunnels were all excavated and supported with a sprayed concrete primary lining. The secondary linings at Bond Street and Fa...

31/08/2016 Technical Paper

Robotic Application of a 50 mm Thick Sprayed Concrete Fireproofing Layer

Topic area: Civil Engineering

The design of the tunnels at Crossrail’s Bond Street Station (C300/C410) includes a final sprayed concrete fireproofing layer. This layer covers any protruding steel fibres in the secondary lining and provides passive fire protection to the tunnel structure. The ability of this regulating layer to limit spalling in t...

31/08/2016 Technical Paper

Realistic Expectations While Monitoring with Networked Robotic Total Station Systems in Live Rail Environments.

Topic area: Civil Engineering

The CRL project has dedicated more than £150 Million to the complete life cycle of automated optical monitoring of rail assets. These optically based systems have been the primary source of monitoring in the majority of all Crossrail’ s interfaces with existing railway infrastructure and each construction contract h...

31/08/2016 Technical Paper

Design of the Deep Cut and Cover Crossrail Paddington Station Using Finite Element Method

Topic area: Civil Engineering

The flagship Crossrail Paddington Station is generally located within London Clay and takes the shape of a deep cut and cover underground box structure approximately 264 m long, 24 m wide and 24 m deep framed with diaphragm walls and constructed top down using plunge columns connected to 1.8 m diameter bored piles. It ...

31/08/2016 Technical Paper

TBM Station Transits

Topic area: Civil Engineering

Providing parallel access into tunnels during its construction is a key factor for optimising programme. However a tunnel is a linear work site where sharing of the space between several contractors brings with it interfacing issues and associated risks that may in turn negate the benefit gained from parallel working. ...

31/08/2016 Technical Paper

Overcoming inclusions within Diaphragm Walls at Cambridge Heath Shaft Whitechapel

Topic area: Civil Engineering

This paper discusses how the Whitechapel Project Team overcame issues regarding the inclusion of foreign material in the Diaphragm Wall panels at Cambridge Heath Shaft, Whitechapel Crossrail station. The shaft is circular in shape and formed of Diaphragm Walls with an internal diameter of 28.0 m and a depth of 32 m. It...

31/08/2016 Technical Paper

A Geology of London for Tunnellers and Engineers

Topic area: Civil Engineering

The idea for this short paper arose from the views and encouragement of colleagues working on the Crossrail Project. The geological sequences under London were well understood by all the Engineers and Tunnellers the author encountered but sometimes lacked the purely geological insight in to why things are the way they ...

31/08/2016 Technical Paper

A review of the geology for compensation grouting performance at Bond Street Crossrail Station.

Topic area: Civil Engineering

At 260 metres long and at a depth of 26 metres, the platform tunnels for Crossrail’s Bond Street Station sit below some of the most expensive real estate in the world. Excavated in London Clay, the platform tunnels were formed first by segmental lining from the passing of two Earth Pressure Balance (EPB) Tunnel B...

31/08/2016 Technical Paper

Moorgate Shaft Base Slab, design, detailing and construction

Topic area: Civil Engineering

The Moorgate shaft at Crossrail Liverpool Street station is one of the deepest in London.  Construction of the base slab to the shaft required close collaboration between the client, designer, contractor and suppliers to give assurance that the slab was watertight.  Dense reinforcement was detailed to ensure ease of ...

31/08/2016 Technical Paper

3D numerical analysis of sprayed concrete lined tunnels: Influence and optimisation of the simulation of varied construction schemes

Topic area: Civil Engineering

3D numerical models require significant effort for their preparation and analysis, translated into time and cost. It is in the hands of the engineer to set the optimal level of simulation detail that will provide a reliable and cost effective solution. In sprayed concrete lined tunnels, a common simplification is to si...

31/08/2016 Technical Paper

3D geological model of the completed Farringdon underground railway station

Topic area: Civil Engineering

The complexity and the unknowns of the geology at Farringdon, primarily associated with the Lambeth Group, required a state-of-the-art geotechnical approach in order to manage the risks related to the open face, sprayed concrete lining (SCL) tunnelling. This was aided by the 3D geological model developed by the British...

31/08/2016 Technical Paper

The role of inverse analysis in tunnel design

Topic area: Civil Engineering

In modern design of complex tunnelling projects it is best practice to utilise 3D finite element analysis (3D FEA), its main advantage being the ability to capture the impact of the actual construction processes and the very influential three dimensional effects. The latter may include the effect of tunnels constructed...

31/08/2016 Technical Paper

Tunnel deformations caused by compensation grouting at Crossrail Farringdon Station

Topic area: Civil Engineering

A systematic compensation grouting scheme was successfully implemented to mitigate the surface settlements caused by the tunnelling works in Crossrail’s Farringdon Station. Concurrent grouting episodes were carried out simultaneously with the sequential excavation of the tunnels comprising injections both in front of...

31/08/2016 Technical Paper

Tunnelling in sand in Farringdon Crossrail Station

Topic area: Civil Engineering

The sprayed concrete lined (SCL) tunnels in Crossrail Farringdon Station have been mainly excavated in the Lambeth group, a highly variable formation comprising generally very stiff, over-consolidated clays with interbedded sand lenses. The platform tunnels, approximately 11.4m wide by 10.6m high, were enlarged from th...

31/08/2016 Technical Paper

An innovative Verification Process speeds construction of Crossrail’s Moorgate shaft

Topic area: Civil Engineering

Liverpool Street station was on the critical path for the completion of Crossrail’s central tunnelled section; however the start of the station’s 42m deep Moorgate shaft was delayed by the prolonged time required to extract the foundation piles of the building that had previously occupied the site.  As this delay ...

31/08/2016 Technical Paper

Correlation study between in-situ auscultation and satellite interferometry for the assessment of nonlinear ground motion on Crossrail London

Topic area: Civil Engineering

InSAR (Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar) is a technology used worldwide in order to carry out ground motion surface monitoring without in-situ intervention, using data from radars on Polar-orbiting satellites. Persistent Scatter Interferometry (PSI) based algorithms are the conventional tools used for the detec...

31/08/2016 Technical Paper

Long-term settlement following SCL-tunnel excavation

Topic area: Civil Engineering

Long-term settlement at the start of the project was considered marginal and was believed to not be significant in comparison to the magnitude of the direct settlement influence from tunnel excavation. However, long-term effects of SCL tunnelling at Crossrail C510 Whitechapel and Liverpool Street Stations were identifi...

31/08/2016 Technical Paper

Sprayed Concrete Lining Falls and Exclusion Zone Management

Topic area: Civil Engineering

Falling ground or immature concrete within sprayed concrete lined tunnels is a major safety risk to personnel, which has complex inter-relationships of design, workmanship, plant and materials contributing to any single event. With experience of over 12km of SCL tunnelling on Crossrail in London, this paper describes t...

31/08/2016 Technical Paper

A regional scale groundwater monitoring programme for the Crossrail project: strategy and implementation

Topic area: Civil Engineering

Crossrail is a 21km tunnelling project under London from Paddington in the west and Pudding Mill Lane and Plumstead in the east. The entire sequence of London Basin geology is traversed along the route including the deep aquifer. Ground investigations began in the first phase of Crossrail during the 1990’s and contin...

31/08/2016 Technical Paper

Observations of tunnelling effects on a large diameter jointed concrete pipe on Crossrail Contract C310 at North Woolwich, Newham, London.

Topic area: Civil Engineering

This paper presents observations and monitoring results of ground movements arising from construction of the Crossrail Contract C310 tunnels and its subsequent impact on a large diameter concrete inlet. The Store Road Inlet, a newly constructed 2.4m diameter concrete pipe inlet to a major pumping station in the London ...

31/08/2016 Technical Paper

Cast in-situ Cross Passages: Thermal Stress Assessment

Topic area: Civil Engineering

The C310 Thames Tunnel comprises twin 2.72km long bored tunnels between North Woolwich and Plumstead Portal. Four cast in-situ cross passages link the tunnel drives and the junction between the running tunnels and cross passage linings are made by RC collars cast in-situ on the primary sprayed concrete lining (SCL). Si...

31/08/2016 Technical Paper

Lindsey Street Bridge – A Structural Solution to Settlement Mitigation

Topic area: Civil Engineering

The C435 Farringdon Station Crossrail Project is currently under construction by BAM Ferrovial Kier Joint Venture (BFK). Significant settlements were anticipated, primarily as a result of deep shaft construction, and a combination of Tunnel Boring Machine (TBM) and Sprayed Concrete Lining (SCL) tunnelling. The method o...

31/08/2016 Technical Paper

Management of Obstructions and Adverse Ground Conditions During SCL Tunnelling Works at Bond Street and Tottenham Court Road Stations for Crossrail Contract C300/410

Topic area: Civil Engineering

During construction of the sprayed concrete lined tunnels at Bond Street and Tottenham Court Road Crossrail stations, a number of challenging conditions were encountered, including known and unknown obstructions, and adverse ground conditions. This included uncharted historical wells at both sites discovered only durin...

31/08/2016 Technical Paper

Taking the strain, coping with pressure or shooting targets? An objective comparison between monitoring solutions within sprayed concrete lined tunnels at Crossrail Farringdon Station, London

Topic area: Civil Engineering

Methods of monitoring the structural behaviour of tunnels during construction traditionally rely on in-tunnel displacement monitoring, with designers occasionally specifying the use of pressure cells in critical areas. The advent of fibre optic strain technology (using Fibre Bragg Gratings) offers the tunnelling indust...

31/08/2016 Technical Paper

Analyses of convergence and utilisation of SCL-tunnels during excavation

Topic area: Civil Engineering

This paper provides a comparison of predicted and measured displacements and deformations for SCL tunnels at Crossrail C510 Whitechapel Station. It contributes to the current “lesson learnt” discussion on Crossrail projects in terms of design optimisation. The paper shall feed this discussion with thoroughly invest...

31/08/2016 Technical Paper

Design and construction of Fisher Street crossover cavern on Crossrail contract C300/C410, London

Topic area: Civil Engineering

Creating a complex sprayed concrete lined (SCL) crossover between the Crossrail running tunnels at Fisher Street presented the project team with many interesting challenges, constructing 15m wide caverns beneath sensitive London buildings but without the provision for Compensation Grouting. The paper describes these ch...

31/08/2016 Technical Paper

Design and construction of a hand mined Tunnel

Topic area: Civil Engineering

A link passage between Crossrail’s Bond Street station and London Underground’s Bond Street station was constructed to allow pedestrian access between the two. To enable this, an existing ventilation tunnel from the Central line needed to be diverted. The preliminary design was carried out by the LU Station upgrade...

31/08/2016 Technical Paper

Depressurisation and surface settlement at Vallance Road Garden, Whitechapel

Topic area: Civil Engineering

In 2011 BBMV C510 Joint Venture was awarded the contract for the construction of the Vallance Garden Crossover tunnel. Originally the Crossover was located in Fisher Street, but in 2011 it was relocated to the Vallance Garden area. Due to a lack of geological information a total of 9 bore holes were drilled in order to...

07/09/2015 Technical Paper

Temporary Sprayed Concrete Lining Tunnels in Farringdon Crossrail Station

Topic area: Civil Engineering

Two additional temporary sprayed concrete lining (SCL) structures were designed in addition to the base design, and constructed for Crossrail at Farringdon Station. These structures, namely a wraparound (PL2RC) and a temporary connection adit (CP1-CH1), allowed for significant optimisation of the construction programme...

07/09/2015 Technical Paper
Figure 35. Predicted and measured settlement of the Vallance Road array due to EBRT-W Tunnel excavation.

Volume Loss and Long Term Settlement at Kempton Court, Whitechapel

Topic area: Civil Engineering

Predictions of ground movements due to tunnelling extensively rely on empirical methods based on published case studies of tunnels constructed in similar ground conditions. Prediction of ground movement is necessary to estimate the risk to not only the constructed tunnel, but to workers in the tunnel as well as the ris...

07/09/2015 Technical Paper
Figure 12. Dismantling of the eastbound TBM backup and removal via the shaft

C300 Western Running Tunnels and Caverns Project – TBM Shield Burial and Backup Removal

Topic area: Civil Engineering

The underground construction of the Crossrail Western Running Tunnels saw two 7.1m diameter Earth Pressure Balance (EPB) Tunnel Boring Machines (TBM) bore the twin running tunnels beneath central London. From launch at Royal Oak in mid-2012, the two TBMs continued eastward to the Crossrail Farringdon Station constructi...

07/09/2015 Technical Paper
Figure 1. Crossrail South-East Spur and Location of the Connaught Tunnel

Connaught Tunnel Surface Rail Approaches Settlement Mitigation

Topic area: Civil Engineering

The maximum allowable settlement under the load conditions defined by the specified load model is 15mm, the first 10mm of which is assumed to take place during the construction phase under essentially static loads and the balance under live (i.e. train-imposed) loads generated during the working life of the structure. ...

07/09/2015 Technical Paper
Figure 2. The Farringdon Crossrail Station

Design of Crossrail Farringdon Station – from an Engineers Perspective

Topic area: Civil Engineering

Farringdon Crossrail, a key interchange station is one of the eight new underground stations being built through central London. The purpose of this paper is to describe a number of key design features of the underground station which is being constructed on very constrained sites in central London adjacent to historic...

07/09/2015 Technical Paper

Variation in permeability and dewatering performance for part of the Crossrail route in east London

Topic area: Civil Engineering

The Crossrail project is a new underground railway crossing London from west to east. The project involves the construction of 21km of twin bore tunnel and 8 new underground stations. In the east the route alternates between surface and tunnel by utilising the former North London Line route through Silvertown and North...

07/09/2015 Technical Paper
Figure 1. Geological section along southeast branch of the Crossrail tunnel alignment

The Geology and Geotechnical Properties of the Thanet Sand Formation – an Update from the Crossrail Project.

Topic area: Civil Engineering

Crossrail will provide a high frequency, high capacity train service serving 40 stations and linking Reading and Heathrow to Shenfield and Abbey Wood.  The central section is underground, at up to 40m depth, comprising 2x 6.8m external diameter bored tunnels over a 21km length, and 9 stations. The tunnels encounter or...

07/09/2015 Technical Paper
Figure 3. Shear strength of conditioned soils from laboratory and TBM spoil testing.

Soil Conditioning for EPB Tunnelling: Some Examples of Laboratory Testing and Field Monitoring

Topic area: Civil Engineering

Soil conditioning is an important part of the tunnelling process with Earth Pressure Balance (EPB) TBMs. It is used to modify the properties of the excavated soil to improve control of the excavation process and the TBM performance. Conditioning agents such as water, foam and polymers are injected to the soil during ex...

07/09/2015 Technical Paper
Figure 2. 3D FE model of the Central line SCL overbridge at Tottenham Court Road Station including the existing and new structures

Advances in Numerical Modelling for Complex Tunnelling Projects

Topic area: Civil Engineering

As computer technology has evolved in the recent years, numerical modelling appears to be an increasingly preferable solution in all engineering fields, including tunnelling. The finite element method has become one of the standard tools and proves to indeed be very useful for the analysis of complex underground struct...

07/09/2015 Technical Paper
Figure 2. Aerial photograph of site from the south.

Multi-aquifer pressure relief in east London

Topic area: Civil Engineering

Two adjacent deep shafts in east London involved excavation to 30 m below standing groundwater level and required temporary control of pressures in the Lower Aquifer below the London Clay. Three distinct aquifer horizons were present comprising the Lambeth Group channel sands, Thanet Sand and Chalk. One of the shafts w...

07/09/2015 Technical Paper
Figure 3. Long section of VD4 showing ground profile.

Sub-surface dewatering for an inclined SCL tunnel

Topic area: Civil Engineering

The Crossrail station at Liverpool Street, London required the downward construction of a 37m long by 6m diameter inclined ventilation tunnel using sprayed concrete lining (SCL) techniques. The tunnel penetrated into water bearing channel sands present in the Lambeth Group below the London Clay. This paper describes th...

07/09/2015 Technical Paper
Figure 2. Paddington Station Box and Tunnel Layout

Digging for monitoring gold: In-tunnel monitoring during the Crossrail Paddington Station box excavation

Topic area: Civil Engineering

This paper describes the approach taken to analyse, predict and monitor the behaviour of segmentally lined tunnels resulting from deep basement excavation directly above. The Crossrail Paddington Station comprises a 24m deep box structure located entirely within London Clay.  Prior to box excavation, twin 6.8m diamete...

07/09/2015 Technical Paper
Figure 2. Lambeth Group. depositional variability

The Lambeth Group in the Crossrail Project of London, UK – the geological model

Topic area: Civil Engineering

Crossrail will provide a high frequency, high capacity train service serving 40 stations and linking Reading and Heathrow in the west of London, to Shenfield and Abbey Wood in the east.  Over-ground sections of the route will be linked via twin, 21km tunnels up to 40m below central London and involving the excavation ...

07/09/2015 Technical Paper
Figure 1: Overview on Trial Arrangements for one of the Test Fields

Reinforced Shotcrete with Bar Diameters up to 32mm

Topic area: Civil Engineering

The Crossrail project in London is currently the largest infrastructure project in Europe. The contract C510 comprises the construction of two underground stations in sprayed concrete lining (SCL), Liverpool Street and Whitechapel. Based on the absolute priority of health and safety during all construction phases and s...

07/09/2015 Technical Paper
Figure 6: Example of claystone boundary

Observed differences in the behaviour of the London Clay sub-units during SCL works for Bond Street Station and Tottenham Court Road Station (C300/410)

Topic area: Civil Engineering

Crossrail contract C300/C410 involved the construction of a number of SCL tunnels at Bond Street and Tottenham Court Road Stations, and the Fisher Street crossover as well as six cross passages between the two running tunnels built under this contract. Assessment of the short term stability of the London Clay Formation...

07/09/2015 Technical Paper
Figure 11d. Influence of Pilot & Enlargement tunnel Displacement vs. Time

Inclinometer Analysis of Tunnelling Induced Ground Movement at Liverpool Street Station

Topic area: Civil Engineering

To understand the behaviour of the tunnel lining and the ground during the construction of tunnels and shafts is not only important to determine vertical displacement in the ground but also in the horizontal direction, perpendicular and parallel to the SCL-tunnels.  A series of inclinometers were installed at Liverpoo...

07/09/2015 Technical Paper
Figure 20: Excavation of top heading during enlargement of precast concrete pilot tunnel to full platform size (11m wide x 10m high).

Use of TBM pilot tunnels for large diameter SCL caverns: the benefits, challenges and successes of Crossrail contract C300/C410

Topic area: Civil Engineering

A key bid-winning innovation introduced by BAM Ferrovial Kier (BFK) joint venture on the combined Crossrail Contract C300/C410 was the change of sequence for station construction to allow the TBMs to pass through the stations prior to completion of the SCL works at Bond Street and Tottenham Court Road stations. This no...

07/09/2015 Technical Paper
Figure 1: RM piezometers plan view. The Geotechnical Adits (GAD1 and GAD2), tunnelled at each side of the Access Shaft 1 (AS1), are shadowed.

Development of Pore Water Pressure in the Vicinity of SCL Tunnels in London Clay – Liverpool Street Station

Topic area: Civil Engineering

Accurate ground water monitoring is vital during tunnel excavation in soft soils, not only for the stability of the excavation itself, but also for possible induced settlements, especially in urban areas like London where the total amount of allowed settlement is limited. After the first construction stages of Liverpoo...

07/09/2015 Technical Paper
Figure 7: Platform Tunnel Enlargement with previous excavated Pilot Tunnel using LaserShellTM at White-chapel Station for Crossrail C510. Photo Credit: Alfred Stärk

Real time determination of the utilisation of a sprayed concrete lining during tunnelling

Topic area: Civil Engineering

The displacements of sprayed concrete lining must be measured during tunnel excavation. In order to assess stability the displacements are checked against predictions. Generally, if the measured displacements are equal or less than the predictions, stable and safe conditions are assumed. However, just looking at single...

07/09/2015 Technical Paper
Figure 1. Finsbury Circus aerial view. Salisbury House outlined in orange.

Use of linked monitoring systems for asset protection at Finsbury Circus during SCL tunnelling for Crossrail Station.

Topic area: Civil Engineering

Underground construction projects in inner city environments inevitably induce surface and sub-surface ground movements. The detection and management of these ground movements is essential in order to maintain a safe environment for inhabitants inside the zone of influence and to protect all existing infrastructure and...

07/09/2015 Technical Paper
Figure 8 Central Section Construction Sequence

Rehabilitation of a Victorian Railway Tunnel for Crossrail

Topic area: Civil Engineering

Connaught Tunnel – situated midway between Custom House and North Woolwich and formerly part of the North London Line infrastructure where it passed beneath the Royal Docks in East London – is a Victorian (i.e. 19th Century) brick-lined structure that has been renovated to facilitate the route of the South-...

07/09/2015 Technical Paper
Figure 3. PO Tunnel at Liverpool St. Photo Credit: Alfred Stärk.

Impact on the Post Office Tunnel from SCL Tunnelling at Liverpool St

Topic area: Civil Engineering

From its unveiling in 1927, the Post Office tunnel provided much of London’s mail and parcel transportation across the city, all the way up to its suspension in 2003. Since then, it has remained an historic asset of London. During the construction of Crossrail at Liverpool Street, SCL Tunnelling has been expected to ...

07/09/2015 Technical Paper

Delivering a Safe Integrated SCL Design: The Challenges and Successes of Crossrail Contract C300/C410

Topic area: Civil Engineering

The design delivery for the sprayed concrete linings (SCL) for Crossrail contract C300/C410 Western Running Tunnels and Station Caverns has involved a unique set of circumstances. The SCL primary lining was designed to withstand the various temporary conditions and also formed part of the composite permanent works desi...

03/11/2014 Technical Paper

Stepney Green Cavern – Design Concepts and Performance of SCL Lining

Topic area: Civil Engineering

Crossrail includes several kilometres of SCL tunnels which were designed by Contract C121, Mott MacDonald supported by Gall Zeidler Consultants. The largest of these SCL tunnels are Stepney Green turnout caverns designed to allow trains from Maidenhead in the west to travel to Shenfield and Woolwich in the east. The ca...

03/11/2014 Technical Paper

Design and Construction of Crossrail Stepney Green Sprayed Concrete Lined Caverns

Topic area: Civil Engineering

At over 50m long, 17m wide and 14m high the Stepney Green Caverns are the largest caverns ever built using Sprayed Concrete Lining techniques in Central London. This paper describes the design, construction and monitoring of the Primary Sprayed Concrete Lining together with lessons learnt that can be applied to other C...

03/11/2014 Technical Paper

Back Analysis of Observed Measurements for Optimised SCL Tunnel Design

Topic area: Civil Engineering

The Crossrail Farringdon Station is a deep level station with two platform tunnels, 300 metres long at a depth of approximately 30 metres below street level. The running tunnels are primarily TBM bored with the platform tunnels enlarged using sprayed concrete lining (SCL) tunnelling method. The station is located in ch...

03/11/2014 Technical Paper

Stabilisation of soil pillar adjacent to Eastern Ticket Hall at Bond Street Crossrail Station

Topic area: Civil Engineering

Sprayed concrete lining (SCL) tunnelling alongside the secant pile walls forming the Eastern Ticket Hall (ETH) box at Bond Street station left a narrow pillar of clay, less than 1m wide in places, between the piles and the tunnel lining. Since the tunnelling was to occur after excavation of the box, the stability of th...

03/11/2014 Technical Paper

Design of Crossrail’s Precast Tunnel Linings for Fire

Topic area: Civil Engineering

This paper describes the approach taken to design Crossrail’s precast concrete running tunnel linings for structural stability during a severe fire incident. In recent decades there have been a number of fire incidents in road and rail tunnels which have caused severe damage to the lining structures. These incidents ...

03/11/2014 Technical Paper

Ground Settlement Behaviour In Chalk Due To TBM Excavations

Topic area: Civil Engineering

In Crossrail project contract C310, two new tunnels – the Thames Tunnel (westbound and eastbound) will be constructed between Plumstead portal and North Woolwich portal. The Thames Tunnel is 2.6 km long and about 15 m below the existing Thames river bed. Construction of Plumstead portal commenced in 2011 and complete...

03/11/2014 Technical Paper

The Prediction of Ground Movements Adjacent to Box Excavations

Topic area: Civil Engineering

Thames Water’s Crossrail Project team required a simple method of predicting ground movements around complex shaped station excavations as a verification tool for the Crossrail 3D FEA based damage assessments. Existing commercial software did not take into account the corner stiffening effects of box excavations ...

03/11/2014 Technical Paper

Field measurement by fully grouted vibrating wire piezometers

Topic area: Civil Engineering

Subsurface instrumentation was installed at a field monitoring site in Hyde Park and bordering Bayswater Road for measuring the ground responses to Crossrail tunnelling near Lancaster Gate. Prior to the passage of the tunnel boring machines, pore water pressures were measured, both in the “greenfield” ground and th...

03/11/2014 Technical Paper

The Protection of the 400kV Cables at Pudding Mill Lane

Topic area: Civil Engineering

The ground movement assessment and associated mitigation measures for the National Grid Electric 400kV power cables at Pudding Mill Lane, has been the subject of extensive debate and analysis since the commencement of the Crossrail project. These power cables are very sensitive to ground movement and hence elaborate sc...

03/11/2014 Technical Paper

Comparison of Drilling Methods used for TaM installations in London Clay

Topic area: Civil Engineering

This paper seeks to compare and contrast observations made of different techniques for drilling horizontal holes within London Clay, and to make recommendations as to how subsequent drilling operations from grout shafts should be undertaken in the future. The drilling operations discussed in this paper were part of the...

03/11/2014 Technical Paper

Crossrail Sprayed Concrete Linings

Topic area: Civil Engineering

This paper looks at the sprayed concrete lined (SCL) tunnel design by Mott MacDonald for the Crossrail project. The SCL design consists of five new underground stations, shafts and two Crossovers which will be the largest SCL tunnels to be built in London. It also discusses how the design team was set up and the approa...

03/11/2014 Technical Paper

Data management, analysis and visualisation on Crossrail Drive X Western Tunnels

Topic area: Civil Engineering

Crossrail Drive X Western Tunnels extend from Westbourne Park to Farringdon Station. With the TBM and SCL contracts working under the most expensive real estate in the world, the safeguarding of assets is paramount for safety and stakeholder’s assurance. The management of instrumentation data from geotechnical works,...

03/11/2014 Technical Paper

Crossrail Sprayed Concrete Lining Depressurisation at Stepney Green Caverns

Topic area: Civil Engineering

Crossrail includes approximately 10km of Sprayed Concrete Lining (SCL) tunnels. One of the largest of these tunnels is being constructed at Stepney Green, East London to facilitate the construction of a sub-surface junction, allowing Crossrail trains from Maidenhead and the west to travel to Shenfield and Woolwich in t...

03/11/2014 Technical Paper

Crossrail Western Running Tunnels. Crossing of London Underground: Victoria Line and Bakerloo Line Assets.

Topic area: Civil Engineering

The C300 running tunnels are of comprised a 6.2m internal diameter, 7.1m excavated diameter, and are to be driven by Earth Pressure Balance Machines (EPBMs) from West to East commencing at Royal Oak Portal and terminating at Farringdon Station via Paddington, Bond Street and Tottenham Court Road Stations. Crossrail TBM...

03/11/2014 Technical Paper

Design of Paddington Station

Topic area: Civil Engineering

A flagship Crossrail structure, the new station at Paddington will be constructed at the heart of one of London’s most significant existing transport hubs.  The opportunity to connect Crossrail with international air travel, national mainline, and London transport both above and below ground, drives the need to deve...

03/11/2014 Technical Paper

In Situ Stress Strain Measurements at Tottenham Court Road Platform Tunnel

Topic area: Civil Engineering

The redevelopment of Tottenham Court Road Underground Station started in 2011 as part of the Tube Upgrade Plan to improve and increase the capacity of the existing facility. The plan is to upgrade the station by 2016 to meet an estimated demand of more than 200,000 journeys per day once Crossrail is built. During April...

03/11/2014 Technical Paper

Tunnelling induced strains and deformations at Central Line

Topic area: Civil Engineering

In October and November 2012, Imperial College installed electrical resistance strain gauge rosettes, potentiometric displacement transducers and tape extensometer eye bolts at selected locations in the Central Line eastbound running tunnel between Lancaster Gate and Marble Arch. The installations were completed before...

03/11/2014 Technical Paper

Lessons learnt from the installation of field instrumentation to monitor ground response to tunnelling

Topic area: Civil Engineering

Imperial College in collaboration with Crossrail are performing field monitoring research to investigate the effect of tunnelling in London Clay. This is part of an EPSRC-funded research project investigating how tunnelling affects existing tunnels with segmental cast iron linings. The field research involves a compreh...

03/11/2014 Research Paper

Crossrail UXO Risk Assessment – Pre-empting best practice

Topic area: Civil Engineering

Site investigation works undertaken as part of the Crossrail project over the last ten years have involved extensive intrusive works into the ground in areas of London which were known to have been heavily bombed during World War Two. This bombing created a legacy of unexploded ordnance risk to such works. This paper e...

03/11/2014 Technical Paper

The Design of Thermal Tunnel Energy Segments for Crossrail

Topic area: Civil Engineering

In recent years the drive to reduce carbon emissions and reliance on oil and gas has led to the increase in the use of renewable energy heating systems. The ground source heat pump systems are an example of these renewable systems. Recently tunnels have been considered as a way of connecting building heat pump systems ...

03/11/2014 Technical Paper

The Use of Shape Accel Array for Monitoring Utilities during Urban Tunnel Drives

Topic area: Civil Engineering

The protection of third party assets with reliable monitoring instruments is essential for the running of a successful urban tunnelling project. With a twin bore tunnel being excavated below the Ranelagh Sewer, in Paddington for the Western Tunnel drive of Crossrail, a reliable method was required to measure displaceme...

03/11/2014 Technical Paper

Lord Hill’s Bridge Mitigation Works

Topic area: Civil Engineering

Lord Hill’s Bridge (LHB) was the first piece of infrastructure that the Western tunnels TBM’s passed beneath, at a depth no greater than 4 m below current ground level. The shallow tunnelling depths are a result of the 100 year old bridge being located 50 m east of the Royal Oak Portal head wall. The bridge itself ...

03/11/2014 Technical Paper

Royal Woolwich Arsenal – Crossrail Box Sewer Diversion

Topic area: Civil Engineering

In a unique arrangement Berkeley are collaborating with Crossrail Ltd (CRL) to deliver the Royal Arsenal Woolwich Station Box. In order to construct the Box initial ground investigation was required as well as site clearance and multiple utility service diversions. The most complex of the utility diversions was the div...

03/11/2014 Technical Paper

The Use of Shape Accel Arrays (SAA) for Measuring Retaining Wall Deflection

Topic area: Civil Engineering

The measurement of deflection of designed diaphragm walls is critical for near real time information to assess wall and soil behaviour as the internal area is excavated in a controlled manner. Data enables the site team and designers to check performance of the design, which is linked to safeguarding the site and the e...

03/11/2014 Technical Paper

Installation of Optical Fibre based Sensors within Sprayed Concrete Lined Tunnels to measure Strain and Temperature

Topic area: Civil Engineering

The purpose of this paper is to summarise the practical applications and benefits of optical fibre based sensors over traditional monitoring systems installed within a sprayed concrete lined tunnel. The installation was undertaken as part of the Crossrail project at Bond Street station East ticket hall. The tunnel cho...

03/11/2014 Technical Paper

Design of Sprayed Concrete Linings in Soft Ground─ A Crossrail Perspective

Topic area: Civil Engineering

Sprayed concrete lined (SCL) tunnelling has seen rapid development over the last twenty years in the UK. The purpose of this paper is to give an update on the latest design philosophies and methodologies, and to discuss the future development trends for SCL tunnelling in soft ground. The paper will start with brief ove...

03/11/2014 Technical Paper

Farringdon Station SCL Design – Reducing risk at the heart of Crossrail

Topic area: Civil Engineering

The ground conditions expected at Farringdon Station are amongst the most challenging on Crossrail, exacerbated further by four TBMs (C300 and C305 drives – also known as “X” and “Y” drives respectively) all terminating in reception chambers required to facilitate their extraction. The Sprayed Concrete Lined ...

03/11/2014 Technical Paper

New Taxi Facility on Heritage Structures at Paddington

Topic area: Civil Engineering

As a preliminary part of the Crossrail works at Paddington Station, the existing deck spanning platforms and railway tracks is being transformed from a disused goods depot into a taxi and passenger interchange facility. Paddington Station is a Grade 1 listed heritage structure and all modifications to the existing fabr...

03/11/2014 Technical Paper

Geotechnical Risk Management for Sprayed Concrete Lining Tunnels in Farringdon Crossrail Station

Topic area: Civil Engineering

The proposed Crossrail station will comprise two ticket halls, two escalator/concourse tunnels, two platform tunnels, numerous cross passages and ventilation tunnels. All station tunnels are constructed using sprayed concrete lining (SCL) techniques. The geological conditions were the principal challenge for the design...

03/11/2014 Technical Paper

Transporting Tunnel Boring Machines

Topic area: Civil Engineering

TBMs are rarely seen out in the open as they are often assembled and launched from portals or shafts with backshunts deep below ground. In some circumstances however, it is necessary to transport these huge machines whole. A task of this scale is a complex procedure and requires careful consideration and planning. The ...

03/11/2014 Technical Paper

The Importance of Construction Mock-ups and Trials

Topic area: Civil Engineering

The objective of this paper is to consider the importance of both full scale construction mock-ups and smaller trial samples to a large construction project such as Crossrail. The paper identifies the range of benefits and advantages to be gained by relatively small investment in mock-ups and trial samples and the enha...

03/11/2014 Technical Paper

Development of two different station designs – a comparison of Paddington and Farringdon Stations

Topic area: Civil Engineering

Crossrail Central includes the construction of eight new underground stations and one new surface station linked together by 21km of new twin bore tunnels. This paper describes some key design features of two of the underground stations at Paddington and Farringdon, both of which have been designed by URS. Both station...

03/11/2014 Technical Paper

Repurposing of Grout Shafts

Topic area: Environmental Design

Crossrail investigated potential long term uses for the temporary grout shafts excavated to enable mitigation of ground settlement.  This micro-report and supporting documents explain the options that were researched, why they could not be implemented by Crossrail and recommends that future projects consider such repu...

31/10/2016 Micro-report

Stratford Station – fit for football?

Topic area: Operations

Stratford station was the main access for the 2012 Olympic Games and during this event the station was successfully operated with very high passenger numbers. West Ham Football Club will move to the Olympic Stadium for the 2016 season and the station will need to manage the regular football matches without the signific...

31/08/2016 Technical Paper

Validation of the Tunnel Pressure Signature of the Crossrail Class 345 Train

Topic area: Rail systems

When a train enters a tunnel, it creates a pressure pulse which is experienced by passengers on the train and which propagates along the tunnel. The pressure pulse results in loads being generated on items of infrastructure, such as platform screen doors and tunnel ventilation equipment. The tunnel pressure signature i...

31/08/2016 Technical Paper

The transport and beneficial re-use of Crossrail excavated material

Topic area: Resource Management

This paper is a version of a paper presented at a conference held by the Italian Tunnelling Society in Verona in May 2014[1]. As such it is largely an introduction to this topic with only limited technical content. The paper has two parts, the first deals with the nature of the Crossrail excavated material and associat...

07/09/2015 Technical Paper

The Role of Operations in a Mega Project

Topic area: Operations

Only when it opens will it be possible to judge the success of Operational involvement within Crossrail. There is an inherent conflict between the engineer’s desire to deliver a project at lowest first cost, and that of the operator to enjoy a robust product when complete. Crossrail has had operator involvement from ...

03/11/2014 Technical Paper

Crossrail Art Programme

Topic area: Art

The Crossrail Art Programme has developed since this paper was written in 2011, in particular with the establishment of the Crossrail Art Foundation with financial support from the City of London Corporation.  A future learning legacy paper will set out the form the Art Programme now takes. At the heart of the Crossra...

03/11/2014 Technical Paper